Communication is an interaction between individuals. It is a complex process and it occurs within a frame of reference called Communication Environment. Background, experiences, objectives, and aspiration that both the sender and receiver have in common affects the communication process. It is a two-way process.
Components of the communication process –
- Source:- Source or sender is the same. There is a transmission of information via the channel to one or more receivers. Mood, background, and attitude are important during communication. The sender must be responsible enough while sending a message because they are objects that encode message data and transmit information to one or more receivers. A sender encodes information and selects the channel for sending a message.
- Message:- Message is the information, data, idea, and statement issued that the sender wants to send. It is in the form of words, symbols, gestures, etc. In actuality, the message is the information conveyed by words, symbols, signs, and it may be verbal or non-verbal. Nowadays, the message may be electronic signals on over computer.
- Encoding:- Encoding is the conversion of information from one system to another system in the form of codes. Code refers to the system of symbols, letters used to represent secret meaning. Encoding gives shape to message which helps the sender. Encoding gives a format required for several information processing needs by converting data.
- Channel:- Channel is the medium through which the sender sends its message or idea. The selection of channels depends on both sender’s mood and receiver’s and listing a message expectation. Messages can be sent by using various technologies such as telephone, computer, fax, and sometimes through the post. The communication channel may include Telecommunication and computer networking. It might be a physical transmission medium and it has a capacity for transmitting the information. E.g. – bits per second.
Channels are of 2 types – cable and broadcast.
Cable – wires of cables to transmit data.
Broadcast – uses satellite, radio and infra-red radiations.
- Decoding:- Decoding defines as interpreting the meaning of the message. As soon as proper channels are selected decoding will be done and the message enters the decoding stage of the communication process. It is done by the receiver. Decoding is a useful skill and includes carefully reading and listing a message for better understanding.
- Receiver:- Message is intended for the receiver. For a good process, there must be an effective relationship between the sender and the receiver. The message encoded by the sender is decoded by the receiver. The receiver is listener or reader and also known as an audience or a decoder. The receiver interprets the message so there are high chances of miscommunication due to receiver opinion, personality, and attitude perception. So the receiver has to be careful while decoding the message and sending the response.
- Feedback:- Receiver decodes and sending a message and the sender waits for a response. In some cases, the sender does not receive a response then he/she starts checking what went wrong. This evaluation of the receiver’s response is known as feedback. This helps the sender to understand the effectiveness of the message. Feedback improves deficiencies and helps to grow organizations and individuals. Feedback should not be confused with the response, as a response is the reaction of response and feedback is an examination of the nature of the response.
Feedback helps in:-
- Information collection.
- Communication and media effectiveness is measured.
- It helps in solving the problem and in the coordination of various departments.
- Taking a proper decision and improves the labor-management relationship.
- Context:- Message surrounding by the circumstances is known as context. This includes setting, value positions of people, and message appropriateness. That means the sender has to consider his audience, the speaking style, and various things. How we communicate changes depends on who we are with, what types of events are occurring around us, opinions, etc. The communication ability of the sender defines everything from an empty stomach and bad weather.
Types of context:-
- Physical context:- Time of day, physical location, noise level. The weather.
- Temporal context:- Includes expectations that people have based on past experiences.
- Social Psychological:- Balance between people’s emotional state and their relationship.